For 2,000 years, covert societies have been a part of Chinese culture. Though most have been not detrimental, a few were extremely sophisticated criminal enterprises. Chinese crime lords have operated undercover governments with their own laws and their own strict types of punishment, under emperors and communists in war and in peace.
In recent decades, Chinese gangs have also proceeded into main American cities and have branched out from smuggling opium to smuggling human beings. The documentary The Chinese Mafia – Organized Crime History presented by History Chanel expose an in-depth history of Chinese organized crimes.